Description

Simple

A medication used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and daytime sleepiness.

Clinical

A sympathomimetic agent used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.

Overview

Dextroamphetamine is the dextrorotary enantiomer of amphetamine[5]. Dextroamphetamine was approved by the FDA in 2001 for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder[6,Label].

Pharmacology

Indication

Dextroamphetamine is indicated for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)[Label].

Pharmacodynamic

Dextroamphetamine is a noncatecholamine, sympathomimetic amine that acts as a CNS stimulant[Label]. Dextroamphetamine raises systolic and diastolic blood pressure, acts as a weak bronchodilator, and also acts as a respiratory stimulant[Label]. The general mechanism of action of dextroamphetamine has... Read more

Mechanism of action

The exact mechanism of amphetamines as a class is not known. Dextroamphetamine acts by preventing reuptake, increasing release, and stimulating reverse-transport of dopamine in synaptic clefts in the striatum[ Read more

Absorption

Bioavailability data of dextroamphetamine is not readily available, however there is no difference in bioavailability when taken with or without a meal[Label].

Protein binding

Information currently not available.

Volume of distribution

195L[ Read more

Clearance

17L/h[ Read more

Half life

11.75 hours[Label]. In a study of post-stroke patients the half life was 16.0 hours in females and 12.4 hours in males[ Read more

Route of elimination

A third of the drug is eliminated renally[5].

Toxicity

Dexrtoamphetamine has been shown to be teratogenic and embryotoxic in mice at 41 times the maximum human dose[Label]. These effects were not seen in rat or rabbit studies, and the effects on human pregnancy have not been studied[Label]. The risk and benefit of use during pregnancy should be weighed... Read more

Adverse Effects

Effect Regions Age Groups Incidences Evidence Type
Cardiomyopathy US
Varying Reports
Elevated Blood Pressure US
Varying Reports
Restlessness US
Varying Reports
Overstimulation US
Varying Reports
Insomnia US
Varying Reports
Dizziness US
Varying Reports
Dyskinesia US
Varying Reports
Euphoria US
Varying Reports
Tachycardia US
Varying Reports
Palpitation US
Varying Reports
Changes in libido US
Varying Reports
Rhabdomyolysis US
Varying Reports
Urticaria US
Varying Reports
Impotence US
Varying Reports
Anorexia US
Varying Reports
Weight Loss US
Varying Reports
Constipation US
Varying Reports
Gastrointestinal disturbances US
Varying Reports
Unpleasant taste US
Varying Reports
Diarrhea US
Varying Reports
Tourette’s syndrome US
Varying Reports
Dryness of the mouth US
Varying Reports
Headache US
Varying Reports
Exacerbation of motor and phonic tics US
Varying Reports
Dysphoria US
Varying Reports
Tremor US
Varying Reports

Contraindications

  • Route:
    • Oral
  • Dose Form:
    • Tablet
    • Tablet, extended release
  • Hypersensitivity:
    • true
  • Sex Group: all
  • Regions: US
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Advanced arteriosclerosis
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0107486
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Symptomatic cardiovascular disease
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0107487
      • Modification Of:
        • Base:
          • Name: Cardiovascular Disease
          • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0028376
        • Severity:
          • Includes:
            • symptomatic
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Moderate to Severe Hypertension
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0042937
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Hyperthyroidism
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0009048
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Glaucoma
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0010013
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Agitated states
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0108374
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: History of drug abuse
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0107489
  • Regions: US
  • With Categories Coadmin:
      • Name: Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors
      • Drugbank Id: DBCAT001004
      • Mesh Id: D008996

Food Interactions

Avoid fruit juice. Fruit juice may acidify the gastrointestinal tract, decreasing absorption of amphetamines.