Description

Simple

A sedative medication used to help with panic attacks, anxiety, and seizures.

Clinical

A long-acting benzodiazepine with intermediate onset commonly used to treat panic disorders, severe anxiety, and seizures.

Overview

A benzodiazepine used to treat various seizures, including myotonic or atonic seizures, photosensitive epilepsy, and absence seizures, although tolerance may develop [FDA Label] [11, 12, 13, 14]. The agent has also been indicated for treating panic disorder [FDA Label] [7, 11, 12, Read more

Pharmacology

Indication

Clonazepam is indicated as monotherapy or as an adjunct in the treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (petit mal variant), akinetic, and myoclonic seizures [FDA Label] [ Read more

Pharmacodynamic

The pharmacodynamic properties of clonazepam are common among benzodiazepines and include anticonvulsive, sedative, muscle relaxing and anxiolytic effects [ Read more

Mechanism of action

Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is considered the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the human body [ Read more

Absorption

Clonazepam is rapidly and almost entirely absorbed after oral administration as tablets [FDA Label] [12, Read more

Protein binding

The recorded plasma protein binding of clonazepam ranges between 82ā€“86% [12, Read more

Volume of distribution

Clonazepam distributes very rapidly to various organs and body tissues with preferential uptake by brain structures [12, Read more

Clearance

The documented clearance for clonazepam is approximately 55 ml/min regardless of gender [12]. Nevertheless, clearance values normalized by weight decline with increas... Read more

Half life

The mean elimination half-life determined for clonazepam is independent of the dose given and has been documented as being about 30-40 hours [12, Read more

Route of elimination

Approximately 50-70% of a clonazepam dose is excreted in the urine and 10-30% is excreted in the feces as metabolites [12, Read more

Toxicity

Benzodiazepines like clonazepam commonly cause drowsiness, ataxia, dysarthria, and nystagmus. Overdose with clonazepam is generally not life-threatening if the drug is taken alone, but may lead to areflexia, apnea, hypotension, cardiorespiratory depression, and coma. Coma, if it does occur, usually... Read more

Adverse Effects

Effect Regions Age Groups Incidences Evidence Type
Somnolence US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 26-50%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 10%
  • Clinical Trial
    Drowsiness US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 50%
  • Clinical Trial
    Ataxia US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 30%
  • Clinical Trial
    Behavior Problems US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 25%
  • Clinical Trial
    Dizziness US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 5-12%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 4%
  • Clinical Trial
    Upper Respiratory Tract Infection US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 6-10%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 4%
  • Clinical Trial
    Fatigue US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 6-9%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 4%
  • Clinical Trial
    Coordination abnormal US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 1-9%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 0%
  • Clinical Trial
    Depression US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 6-8%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Ataxia US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 1-8%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 0%
  • Clinical Trial
    Sinusitis US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 2-8%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 3%
  • Clinical Trial
    Dysmenorrhea US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0-6%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 2%
  • Clinical Trial
    Constipation US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0-5%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 2%
  • Clinical Trial
    Influenza US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 2-5%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 3%
  • Clinical Trial
    Memory disturbance US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 2-5%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 2%
  • Clinical Trial
    Allergic Reaction US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 1-4%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Myalgia US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0-4%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Colpitis US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0-4%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Intellectual ability reduced US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0-4%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 0%
  • Clinical Trial
    Nervousness US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 1-4%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 2%
  • Clinical Trial
    Dysarthria US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0-4%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 0%
  • Clinical Trial
    Coughing US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0-4%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 0%
  • Clinical Trial
    Rhinitis US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 2-4%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Appetite decreased US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0-3%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Pharyngitis US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 1-3%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Blurred vision US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0-3%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Impotence US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0-3%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 0%
  • Clinical Trial
    Libido decreased US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0-3%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 0%
  • Clinical Trial
    Abdominal Pain US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0-2%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Bronchitis US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0-2%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Urinary Tract Infection US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0-2%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 0%
  • Clinical Trial
    Micturition frequency US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 1-2%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 0%
  • Clinical Trial
    Ejaculation delayed US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0-2%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 0%
  • Clinical Trial
    Emotional Lability US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0-2%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Confusion US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0-2%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 0%
  • Clinical Trial
    Accident US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Weight increase US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Wound US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Weight decrease US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Edema foot US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Ankle Edema US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Injury US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Edema periorbital US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Fever US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Edema US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Abrasions US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Shivering US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Vertigo US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Otitis US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Earache US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial

    Contraindications

    • Hypersensitivity:
      • benzodiazepines
    • Regions: US
    • Regions: US
    • Patient Conditions:
        • Name: Acute narrow angle glaucoma
        • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0107878
        • Modification Of:
          • Base:
            • Name: Narrow angle glaucoma
            • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0104923
          • Severity:
            • Includes:
              • acute
    • Regions: US
    • Patient Conditions:
        • Name: Significant liver disease
        • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0107858

    Food Interactions

    Avoid alcohol.

    Limit caffeine intake.

    Take with or without food. The absorption is unaffected by food.