Description

Simple

A penicillin antibiotic use to treat a wide variety of infections in the body.

Clinical

A penicillin derivative used for the treatment of infections caused by gram-positive bacteria, in particular streptococcal bacteria causing upper respiratory tract infections.

Overview

Amoxicillin, or BRL-2333, is a penicillin G derivative first described in the literature in 1972.[6] Amoxicillin has similar activity to [penicillin] and [ampicillin], but leads to higher serum concentrations than ampicillin.[6]

Amoxicillin was granted FDA approval on 18 January 1974.[12]

Pharmacology

Indication

Amoxicillin alone is indicated to treat susceptible bacterial infections of the ear, nose, throat, genitourinary tract, skin, skin structure, and lower respiratory tract.[17, Read more

Pharmacodynamic

Amoxicillin competitively inhibit penicillin binding proteins, leading to upregulation of autolytic enzymes and inhibition of cell wall synthesis.[ Read more

Mechanism of action

Amoxicillin competitively inhibits penicillin-binding protein 1 and other high molecular weight penicillin binding proteins.[ Read more

Absorption

Amoxicillin is approximately 60% bioavailable.[8 Read more

Protein binding

Amoxicillin is 17% protein bound in serum.[ Read more

Volume of distribution

The central volume of distribution of amoxicillin is 27.7L.[ Read more

Clearance

The mean clearance of amoxicillin is 21.3L/h.[ Read more

Half life

The half life of amoxicillin is 61.3 minutes.[8 Read more

Route of elimination

125mg to 1g doses of amoxicillin are 70-78% eliminated in the urine after 6 hours.[6]

Toxicity

Patients experiencing an overdose may present with hematuria, oliguria, abdominal pain, acute renal failure, vomiting, diarrhea, rash, hyperactivity, and drowsiness.[ Read more

Adverse Effects

Effect Regions Age Groups Incidences Evidence Type
Headache US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 15.6
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 9.8
  • Clinical Trial
    Diarrhea US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 15.0
  • Clinical Trial
    Diarrhea US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 14.3
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 9.8
  • Clinical Trial
    Diarrhea US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 14.0
  • Clinical Trial
    Chromaturia US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 13
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 2.4
  • Clinical Trial
    Diarrhea US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 10.1
  • Kind: comparator
    • Percent: 7.9
  • Clinical Trial
    Taste perversion US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 10.0
  • Clinical Trial
    Diarrhea and Loose Stools US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 9.0
  • Clinical Trial
    Diarrhea US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 8
  • Clinical Trial
    Headache US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 7.5
  • Kind: comparator
    • Percent: 7.0
  • Clinical Trial
    Headache US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 7.0
  • Clinical Trial
    Headache US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 7
  • Clinical Trial
    Diarrhea US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 7
  • Clinical Trial
    Headache US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 6
  • Clinical Trial
    Nausea US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 4.8
  • Kind: comparator
    • Percent: 5.3
  • Clinical Trial
    Rash US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 5.2
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 0
  • Clinical Trial
    Taste Disturbance US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 5
  • Clinical Trial
    Vomiting US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 1.3
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 4.9
  • Clinical Trial
    Abdominal Pain US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 3.9
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 4.9
  • Clinical Trial
    Abdominal Pain US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 3.5
  • Kind: comparator
    • Percent: 4.8
  • Clinical Trial
    Discontinuation of treatment US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 4.4
  • Clinical Trial
    Nausea US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 3.9
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 2.4
  • Clinical Trial
    Oropharyngeal pain US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 3.9
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 0
  • Clinical Trial
    Diaper Rash US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 3.5
  • Clinical Trial
    Vaginal Mycosis US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 3.0
  • Clinical Trial
    Nausea US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 3.0
  • Clinical Trial
    Rash and urticaria US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 3.0
  • Clinical Trial
    Discontinuation of therapy US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: <3
  • Clinical Trial
    Diarrhea US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 2.9
  • Clinical Trial
    Rash US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 2.6
  • Kind: comparator
    • Percent: 0.9
  • Clinical Trial
    Diarrhea US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 2.5
  • Clinical Trial
    Vulvovaginal Candidiasis US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 2.2
  • Kind: comparator
    • Percent: 2.2
  • Clinical Trial
    Vomiting US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 2.2
  • Kind: comparator
    • Percent: 2.2
  • Clinical Trial
    Dyspepsia US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 2.2
  • Kind: comparator
    • Percent: 1.3
  • Clinical Trial
    Vomiting US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 2.2
  • Clinical Trial
    Discontinuation of therapy US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 1
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 2
  • Kind: comparator
    • Percent: <1
  • Clinical Trial
    Loose stools US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 2
  • Clinical Trial
    Discontinuation of therapy US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 2
  • Clinical Trial
    Nausea US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 2.0
  • Clinical Trial
    Moniliasis US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 1.4
  • Clinical Trial
    Vomiting US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 1.4
  • Clinical Trial
    Dyspepsia US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 1.3
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 0
  • Clinical Trial
    Rash US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 1.1
  • Clinical Trial
    Vomiting US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 1
  • Clinical Trial
    Abdominal Discomfort US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: <1
  • Clinical Trial
    Flatulence US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: <1
  • Clinical Trial
    Headache US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: <1
  • Clinical Trial
    Vaginitis US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 1.0
  • Clinical Trial
    Rash US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: >1
  • Clinical Trial
    Vomiting US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: >1
  • Clinical Trial

    Contraindications

    • Regions: US
    • Patient Conditions:
        • Name: Hepatic dysfunction
        • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0094733
    • With Drugs:
        • Name: Clavulanic acid
        • Drugbank Id: DB00766
    • Regions: US
    • Patient Conditions:
        • Name: Cholestatic jaundice
        • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0094562
    • With Drugs:
        • Name: Clavulanic acid
        • Drugbank Id: DB00766
    • Regions: US
    • Patient Conditions:
        • Name: Cholestatic jaundice
        • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0094562
    • Regions: US
    • Patient Conditions:
        • Name: Hepatic dysfunction
        • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0094733
    • Hypersensitivity:
      • beta-lactam antibiotics
    • Regions: US
    • Hypersensitivity:
      • true
    • Regions: US

    Food Interactions

    Take with food.