Description

Simple

A medication used to treat seizures, glaucoma, swelling from water retention, and heart failure.

Clinical

A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor used to treat edema from heart failure or medications, certain types of epilepsy, and glaucoma.

Overview

One of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitors that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)

Pharmacology

Indication

For adjunctive treatment of: edema due to congestive heart failure; drug-induced edema; centrencephalic epilepsies; chronic simple (open-angle) glaucoma

Pharmacodynamic

Acetazolamide is a potent carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, effective in the control of fluid secretion, in the treatment of certain convulsive disorders and in the promotion of diuresis in instances of abnormal fluid retention. Acetazolamide is not a mercurial diuretic. Rather, it is a nonbacteriostati... Read more

Mechanism of action

The anticonvulsant activity of Acetazolamide may depend on a direct inhibition of carbonic anhydrase in the CNS, which decreases carbon dioxide tension in the pulmonary alveoli, thus increasing arterial oxygen tension. The diuretic effect depends on the inhibition of carbonic anhydrase, causing a re... Read more

Absorption

Information currently not available.

Protein binding

98%

Volume of distribution

Information currently not available.

Clearance

Information currently not available.

Half life

3 to 9 hours

Route of elimination

Information currently not available.

Toxicity

Information currently not available.

Adverse Effects

Effect Regions Age Groups Incidences Evidence Type
Taste alteration US
Varying Reports
Nausea US
Varying Reports
Tinnitus US
Varying Reports
Loss of Appetite US
Varying Reports
Parethesia US
Varying Reports
Hearing dysfunction US
Varying Reports
Electrolyte imbalance US
Varying Reports
Transient myopia US
Varying Reports
Confusion US
Varying Reports
Metabolic Acidosis US
Varying Reports
Polyuria US
Varying Reports
Drowsiness US
Varying Reports
Vomiting US
Varying Reports
Diarrhea US
Varying Reports
Convulsions US
Varying Reports
Photosensitivity US
Varying Reports
Flaccid paralysis US
Varying Reports
Hepatic Insufficiency US
Varying Reports
Glycosuria US
Varying Reports
Hematuria US
Varying Reports
Melena US
Varying Reports
Urticaria US
Varying Reports
Headache US
Varying Reports
Death US
Varying Reports
Blood dyscrasias US
Varying Reports
Aplastic Anemia US
Varying Reports
Agranulocytosis US
Varying Reports
Fulminant hepatic necrosis US
Varying Reports
Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis US
Varying Reports
Stevens-Johnson Syndrome US
Varying Reports
Malaise US
Varying Reports
Fatigue US
Varying Reports
Fever US
Varying Reports
Pain at injection site US
Varying Reports
Flushing US
Varying Reports
Flaccid paralysis US
Varying Reports
Anaphylaxis US
Varying Reports
Leukopenia US
Varying Reports
Thrombocytopenic Purpura US
Varying Reports
Melena US
Varying Reports
Abnormal liver function US
Varying Reports
Cholestatic jaundice US
Varying Reports
Hypokalemia US
Varying Reports
Hyponatremia US
Varying Reports
Osteomalacia US
Varying Reports
Hyperglycemia US
Varying Reports
Depression US
Varying Reports
Hypoglycemia US
Varying Reports
Ataxia US
Varying Reports
Excitement US
Varying Reports

Contraindications

  • Route:
    • Oral
  • Dose Form:
    • Tablet
  • Regions: Canada
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Hemorrhagic glaucoma
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0130596
  • Route:
    • Oral
  • Dose Form:
    • Tablet
  • Regions: Canada
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Severe Glaucoma caused by peripheral anterior synechias
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0130593
      • Modification Of:
        • Base:
          • Name: Glaucoma caused by peripheral anterior synechias
          • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0130594
        • Severity:
          • Includes:
            • severe
  • Route:
    • Oral
  • Dose Form:
    • Tablet
  • Regions: Canada
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Metabolic Acidosis
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0043658
  • Route:
    • Oral
  • Dose Form:
    • Tablet
  • Regions: Canada
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Renal Failure
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0029445
  • Route:
    • Intravenous
    • Oral
  • Dose Form:
    • Capsule, extended release
    • Injection
    • Tablet
  • Time Period: long-term administration
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Chronic non-congestive angle-closure glaucoma
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0108032
  • Route:
    • Intravenous
    • Oral
  • Dose Form:
    • Capsule, extended release
    • Injection
    • Tablet
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Liver Cirrhosis
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0028911
  • Route:
    • Intravenous
    • Oral
  • Dose Form:
    • Capsule, extended release
    • Injection
    • Tablet
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Suprarenal gland failure
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0108030
  • Route:
    • Intravenous
    • Oral
  • Dose Form:
    • Capsule, extended release
    • Injection
    • Tablet
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Depressed sodium and/or potassium blood serum levels
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0108028
  • Route:
    • Intravenous
    • Oral
  • Dose Form:
    • Capsule, extended release
    • Injection
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Hyperchloremic acidosis
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0104682
  • Route:
    • Intravenous
    • Oral
  • Dose Form:
    • Capsule, extended release
    • Injection
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Marked kidney and liver disease or dysfunction
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0108029
  • Route:
    • Intravenous
    • Oral
  • Dose Form:
    • Capsule, extended release
    • Injection
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Liver Diseases
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0027940
  • Route:
    • Intravenous
    • Oral
  • Dose Form:
    • Capsule, extended release
    • Injection
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Kidney Diseases
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0028223
  • Route:
    • Intravenous
    • Oral
  • Dose Form:
    • Capsule, extended release
    • Injection
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: History of sulfonamide allergy
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0104344
  • Route:
    • Intravenous
    • Oral
  • Dose Form:
    • Capsule, extended release
    • Injection
  • Hypersensitivity:
    • true
  • Regions: US

Food Interactions

Drink plenty of fluids.

Take with food. Take at least 6 hours before bedtime.