Description

Simple

A medication used to treat drooling, abdominal pain, a slow heartbeat, IBS (irritable bowel syndrome), and motion sickness.

Clinical

An anticholinergic used to treat excessive salivation, colicky abdominal pain, bradycardia, diverticulitis, IBS, and motion sickness.

Overview

An alkaloid from Solanaceae, especially Datura metel L. and Scopola carniolica. Scopolamine and its quaternary derivatives act as antimuscarinics like atropine, but may have more central nervous system effects. Among the many uses are as an anesthetic premedication, in urinary incontinence, in motion sickness, as an antispasmodic, and as a mydriatic and cycloplegic.

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of excessive salivation, colicky abdominal pain, bradycardia, sialorrhoea, diverticulitis, irritable bowel syndrome and motion sickness.

Pharmacodynamic

Scopolamine is a muscarinic antagonist structurally similar to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and acts by blocking the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and is thus classified as an anticholinergic. Scopolamine has many uses including the prevention of motion sickness. It is not clear how Scopo... Read more

Mechanism of action

Scopolamine acts by interfering with the transmission of nerve impulses by acetylcholine in the parasympathetic nervous system (specifically the vomiting center).

Absorption

Bioavailability is 10 - 50%

Protein binding

Information currently not available.

Volume of distribution

Information currently not available.

Clearance

Information currently not available.

Half life

4.5 hours

Route of elimination

Less than 10% of the total dose is excreted in the urine as parent and metabolites over 108 hours.

Toxicity

Information currently not available.

Adverse Effects

Effect Regions Age Groups Incidences Evidence Type
Dryness of the mouth US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 60%
  • Varying Reports
    Dry Mouth US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 29%
  • Varying Reports
    Drowsiness US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: <17%
  • Varying Reports
    Dizziness US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 12%
  • Varying Reports
    Tachycardia US
    Varying Reports
    Drowsiness US
    Varying Reports
    Dizziness US
    Varying Reports
    Nervousness US
    Varying Reports
    Mental confusion US
    Varying Reports
    Drug idiosyncrasies US
    Varying Reports
    Headache US
    Varying Reports
    Palpitation US
    Varying Reports
    Severe allergic reaction US
    Varying Reports
    Ocular exudate US
    Varying Reports
    Ocular hyperemia US
    Varying Reports
    Increased intraocular pressure US
    Varying Reports
    Ocular edema US
    Varying Reports
    Photophobia US
    Varying Reports
    Restlessness US
    Post Marketing
    Conjunctival injection of eyes US
    Post Marketing
    Itchy eyes US
    Post Marketing
    Dry Eyes US
    Post Marketing
    Erythema US
    Post Marketing
    Rashes US
    Post Marketing
    Memory Disturbances US
    Post Marketing
    Hallucinations US
    Post Marketing
    Eczema US
    Varying Reports
    Visual Hallucinations US
    Varying Reports
    Drowsiness US
    Varying Reports
    Transient changes in heart rate US
    Post Marketing
    Follicular conjunctivitis US
    Varying Reports
    Eye irritation US
    Varying Reports
    Blurred vision US
    Varying Reports
    Xerostomia US
    Varying Reports
    Impotence US
    Varying Reports
    Suppression of lactation US
    Varying Reports
    Blurred vision US
    Varying Reports
    Dilation of the pupils US
    Varying Reports
    Acute narrow-angle glaucoma US
    Post Marketing
    Confusion US
    Post Marketing
    Difficulty urinating US
    Post Marketing
    Dilatation of the pupil US
    Varying Reports
    Blurred vision US
    Varying Reports
    Increased ocular tension US
    Varying Reports
    Cyclopegia US
    Varying Reports
    Urinary hesitation US
    Varying Reports
    Loss of taste US
    Varying Reports
    Nausea US
    Varying Reports
    Urinary Retention US
    Varying Reports
    Constipation US
    Varying Reports

    Contraindications

    • Route:
      • Oral
    • Regions: US
    • Patient Conditions:
        • Name: Intestinal atony of the elderly or debilitated patient
        • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0107970
    • Route:
      • Oral
    • Regions: US
    • Patient Conditions:
        • Name: Unstable cardiovascular status in acute hemorrhage
        • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0107971
    • Route:
      • Oral
    • Regions: US
    • Patient Conditions:
        • Name: Severe Ulcerative Colitis
        • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0033634
        • Modification Of:
          • Base:
            • Name: Ulcerative Colitis
            • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0029012
          • Severity:
            • Includes:
              • severe
    • Route:
      • Oral
    • Regions: US
    • Patient Conditions:
        • Name: Toxic megacolon complicating ulcerative colitis
        • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0107747
    • Route:
      • Oral
      • Transdermal
    • Regions: US
    • Patient Conditions:
        • Name: Narrow-angle glaucoma
        • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0095646
    • Route:
      • Transdermal
    • Hypersensitivity:
      • belladonna alkaloids
    • Regions: US
    • Route:
      • Oral
    • Regions: US
    • Patient Conditions:
        • Name: Obstructive Uropathy
        • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0068646
    • Route:
      • Oral
    • Regions: US
    • Patient Conditions:
        • Name: Obstructive disease of the gastrointestinal tract
        • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0107746
    • Route:
      • Oral
    • Regions: US
    • Patient Conditions:
        • Name: Paralytic Ileus
        • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0047064
    • Route:
      • Oral
    • Regions: US
    • Patient Conditions:
        • Name: Myasthenia Gravis
        • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0028961

    Food Interactions

    Information currently not available.