Description

Simple

A medication used to lower blood pressure, slow the progression of heart failure, and treat heart attacks.

Clinical

An ACE inhibitor used to treat hypertension, heart failure, and acute myocardial infarction.

Overview

Lisinopril is an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) used to treat hypertension, heart failure, and myocardial infarction.[8,9,10] Lisinopril and [captopril] are the only ACEIs that are not prodrugs.[7] It functions by inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme as well as the renin angiotensin aldosterone system.[3,4,Read more

Pharmacology

Indication

Lisinopril is indicated for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction, hypertension in patients ≥6 years, and as an adjunct therapy for heart failure.[8, Read more

Pharmacodynamic

Lisinopril is an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor used to treat hypertension, heart failure, and myocardial infarction.[8, Read more

Mechanism of action

Angiotensin II constricts coronary blood vessels and is positively inotropic, which under normal circumstances, would increase vascular resistance and oxygen consumption.[ Read more

Absorption

Lisinopril is 6-60% orally bioavailable with an average of 25% bioavailability.[2, Read more

Protein binding

Lisinopril has not been demonstrated to bind to serum proteins.[8,9, Read more

Volume of distribution

The apparent volume of distribution of lisinopril is 124L.[ Read more

Clearance

A 30kg child has a typical clearance of 10L/h, which increases with renal function.[8, Read more

Half life

Lisinopril has an effective half life of accumulation of 12.6h[2, Read more

Route of elimination

Lisinopril is entirely eliminated exclusively in the urine.[8,9, Read more

Toxicity

The oral and subcutaneous LD50 in rats is >8500mg/kg and in mice is >9100mg/kg.[11] The oral LDLO in women is 1200µg/kg/16D and in men is 43mg/kg/43W.[ Read more

Adverse Effects

Effect Regions Age Groups Incidences Evidence Type
Dizziness US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 19
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 12
  • Clinical Trial
    Elevated serum creatinine US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 11.6
  • Clinical Trial
    Elevations in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 11.6
  • Clinical Trial
    Discontinuation of therapy US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 11
  • Clinical Trial
    Hypotension US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 11
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 7
  • Clinical Trial
    Creatinine increased US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 7
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 10
  • Clinical Trial
    Hypotension US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 9.0
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 3.7
  • Clinical Trial
    Discontinuation of therapy US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 8.1
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 7.7
  • Clinical Trial
    Dizziness US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 7.5
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 1.9
  • Clinical Trial
    Dizziness US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 7.5
  • Clinical Trial
    Syncope US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 5
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 7
  • Clinical Trial
    Hyperkalemia US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 6
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 4
  • Clinical Trial
    Discontinuation of therapy US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 5.7
  • Clinical Trial
    Headache US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 5.7
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 1.9
  • Clinical Trial
    Dizziness US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 5.4
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 1.9
  • Clinical Trial
    Hypotension US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 5.3
  • Clinical Trial
    Headache US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 5.2
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 1.9
  • Clinical Trial
    Headache US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 5.2
  • Clinical Trial
    Hyperkalemia US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 4.8
  • Clinical Trial
    Discontinuation of therapy US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 4.4
  • Clinical Trial
    Hypotension US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 4.4
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 0.6
  • Clinical Trial
    Cough US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 3.9
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 1.0
  • Clinical Trial
    Cough US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 3.9
  • Clinical Trial
    Hypotension US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 3.8
  • Clinical Trial
    Headache US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 3.8
  • Clinical Trial
    Fatigue US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 3.7
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 1.0
  • Clinical Trial
    Fatigue US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 3.7
  • Clinical Trial
    Dizziness US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 3.5
  • Clinical Trial
    Cough US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 3.5
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 1
  • Clinical Trial
    Chest Pain US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 3.4
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 1.3
  • Clinical Trial
    Orthostatic effects US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 3.2
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 1.0
  • Clinical Trial
    Orthostatic effects US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 3.2
  • Clinical Trial
    Diarrhea US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 2.5
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 2.4
  • Clinical Trial
    Cough US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 2.5
  • Clinical Trial
    Nausea US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 2.4
  • Clinical Trial
    Diarrhea US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.2
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 2.4
  • Clinical Trial
    Nausea US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 2.2
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 2.4
  • Clinical Trial
    Renal Dysfunction US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 2.4
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 1.1
  • Clinical Trial
    Renal Dysfunction US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 2.4
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 1.1
  • Clinical Trial
    Infection US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 2.2
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 0.0
  • Clinical Trial
    Hyperkalemia US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 2.2
  • Clinical Trial
    Chest Pain US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 2.1
  • Clinical Trial
    Muscle Cramps US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 2
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 0.5
  • Clinical Trial
    Elevated serum creatinine US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 2
  • Clinical Trial
    Elevations in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 2
  • Clinical Trial
    Headache US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.3
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 1.9
  • Clinical Trial
    Dizziness US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.8
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 1.9
  • Clinical Trial
    Asthenia US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 1.8
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 1.0
  • Clinical Trial
    Paresthesia US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 1.5
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 0
  • Clinical Trial
    Vomiting US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 1.4
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 0.5
  • Clinical Trial

    Contraindications

    • Recommended Actions:
      • Avoid
    • Regions: US
    • With Categories:
        • Name: Neprilysin, antagonists & inhibitors
        • Drugbank Id: DBCAT001007
    • Regions: US
    • Patient Conditions:
        • Name: Hereditary or idiopathic angioedema
        • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0107806
    • Regions: US
    • Patient Conditions:
        • Name: Angioedema
        • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0013604
    • Hypersensitivity:
      • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
    • Regions: US
    • Regions: US
    • Patient Conditions:
        • Name: Diabetes
        • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0022048
    • With Drugs Coadmin:
        • Name: Aliskiren
        • Drugbank Id: DB09026

    Food Interactions

    Avoid hypertensive herbs (e.g. bayberry, blue cohosh, cayenne, ephedra, and licorice).

    Avoid potassium-containing products. Potassium products increase the risk of hyperkalemia.

    Limit salt intake. Salt may attenuate the antihypertensive effect.

    Take with or without food. The absorption is unaffected by food.