Description

Simple

A medication used to help patients with alcohol dependence maintain abstinence from alcohol use.

Clinical

A medication used to maintain alcohol abstinence in patients with alcohol dependence.

Overview

Acamprosate, also known by the brand name Campral™, is a drug used for treating alcohol dependence. Acamprosate is thought to stabilize the chemical balance in the brain that would otherwise be disrupted by alcoholism, possibly by blocking glutaminergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, while gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors are activated. Reports indicate that acamprosate only works with a combination of attending support groups and abstinence from alcohol. Certain serious side effects include allergic reactions, irregular heartbeats, and low or high blood pressure, while less serious side effects include headaches, insomnia, and impotence. Acamprosate should not be taken by people with kidney problems or allergies to the drug.

Pharmacology

Indication

For the maintenance of abstinence from alcohol in patients with alcohol dependence who are abstinent at treatment initiation

Pharmacodynamic

Pharmacodynamic studies have shown that acamprosate calcium reduces alcohol intake in alcohol-dependent animals in a dose-dependent manner and that this effect appears to be specific to alcohol and the mechanisms of alcohol dependence. Acamprosate calcium has negligible observable central nervous sy... Read more

Mechanism of action

The mechanism of action of acamprosate in maintenance of alcohol abstinence is not completely understood. Chronic alcohol exposure is hypothesized to alter the normal balance between neuronal excitation and inhibition. in vitro and in vivo studies in animals have provided evidence to s... Read more

Absorption

The absolute bioavailability of acamprosate after oral administration is about 11%. The food effect on absorption is not clinically significant and no adjustment of dose is necessary.

Protein binding

Non detectable

Volume of distribution

72 to 109 L

Clearance

Information currently not available.

Half life

20 - 33 hours

Route of elimination

Following oral administration of CAMPRAL®, the major route of excretion is via the kidneys as acamprosate.

Toxicity

In all reported cases of acute overdosage with acamprosate (total reported doses of up to 56 grams of acamprosate calcium), the only symptom that could be reasonably associated with acamprosate was diarrhea.

Adverse Effects

Effect Regions Age Groups Incidences Evidence Type
Diarrhea US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 10-17%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 10%
  • Clinical Trial
    Insomnia US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 6-9%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 7%
  • Clinical Trial
    Depression US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 4-8%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 5%
  • Clinical Trial
    Anxiety US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 5-8%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 6%
  • Clinical Trial
    Asthenia US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 5-7%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 5%
  • Clinical Trial
    Anorexia US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 2-5%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 3%
  • Clinical Trial
    Flatulence US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 5-1-4%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 2%
  • Clinical Trial
    Nausea US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 3-4%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 3%
  • Clinical Trial
    Accidental injury US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 3-4%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 3%
  • Clinical Trial
    Pain US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 2-4%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 3%
  • Clinical Trial
    Pruritus US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 3-4%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 3%
  • Clinical Trial
    Dizziness US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 3-4%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 3%
  • Clinical Trial
    Paresthesia US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 2-3%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 2%
  • Clinical Trial
    Sweating US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 2-3%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 2%
  • Clinical Trial
    Dry Mouth US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 1-3%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 2%
  • Clinical Trial
    Suicidal Ideation US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 1.4-2.4%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 0.5-0.8%
  • Clinical Trial
    Suicidal attempts US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 1.4-2.4%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 0.5-0.8%
  • Clinical Trial
    Completed suicide US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 1.4-2.4%
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 0.5-0.8%
  • Clinical Trial
    Exfoliative dermatitis US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Urticaria US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Amblyopia US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Tinnitus US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Vesiculobullous rash US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Eczema US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Acne US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Pneumonia US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Dry Skin US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Maculopapular rash US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Alopecia US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Urinary Incontinence US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Vaginitis US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Metrorrhagia US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Urinary Frequency US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Deafness US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Sexual function abnormal US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Urinary Tract Infection US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Vertigo US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Apathy US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Withdrawal syndrome US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Confusion US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Convulsion US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Libido increased US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Bilirubinemia US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Leg cramps US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Hyperuricemia US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Avitaminosis US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Diabetes Mellitus US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Asthma US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Epistaxis US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Abnormal dreams US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 0.1-1%
  • Clinical Trial

    Contraindications

    Information currently not available.

    Food Interactions

    Take with or without food. Food decreases drug absorption, but not to a clinically significant extent.