Description

Simple

A medication used to treat high levels of pressure in the eye.

Clinical

An isopropyl ester prodrug used to treat increased intraocular pressure.

Overview

Latanoprost is a prodrug analog of prostaglandin F2 alpha that is used to treat elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). It was initially approved by the FDA in 1998. Latanoprost is the first topical prostaglandin F2 alpha analog used for glaucoma treatment.[3] It has been found to be well-tolerated and its use does not normally result in systemic adverse effects like other drugs used to treat elevated intraocular pressure, such as [Timolol]. Another benefit latanoprost is that it can be administered once a day.[2]

Pharmacology

Indication

Latanoprost is indicated for the reduction of elevated intraocular pressure in patients who have been diagnosed with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.[6] Latanoprost may be combined in a product with [Netarsudil... Read more

Pharmacodynamic

Latanoprost effectively decreases intraocular pressure by increasing uveoscleral outflow.[ Read more

Mechanism of action

Elevated intraocular pressure leads to an increased risk of glaucomatous visual field loss. The higher the intraocular pressure, the higher the risk of damage to the optic nerve and loss of visual field.[6] Latanoprost s... Read more

Absorption

This drug is rapidly absorbed in the cornea as an isopropyl ester prodrug and is then activated by the process of hydrolysis. A small amount of this drug is systemically absorbed.[ Read more

Protein binding

Latanoprost is about 90% plasma protein-bound.[11]

Volume of distribution

The volume of distribution of latanoprost is 0.16 ± 0.02 L/kg. The activated acid form of latanoprost can be measured in aqueous humor in the initial 4 hours post-administration, and it is measured in the plasma only for 1 hour following ophthalmic administration.[ Read more

Clearance

The systemic clearance of latanoprost is 7 mL/min/kg.[6]

Half life

The elimination half-life of latanoprost from the plasma is about 17 minutes.[3,L8375] The elimination h... Read more

Route of elimination

After hepatic beta-oxidation, the metabolites of latanoprost are primarily found to be excreted by the kidneys. About 88% of the latanoprost dose is recovered in the urine after topical administration.[ Read more

Toxicity

The oral LD50 in the rat is > 50 mg/kg.[7]

An overdose of latanoprost is not expected to result in dangerous patient outcomes, however, conjunctival or episcleral hyperemia may occur.[ Read more

Adverse Effects

Effect Regions Age Groups Incidences Evidence Type
Foreign body sensation US
  • seniors
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 13%
  • Kind: comparator
    • Percent: 8%
  • Clinical Trial
    Stinging US
    • seniors
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 9%
  • Kind: comparator
    • Percent: 12%
  • Clinical Trial
    Punctate epithelial keratopathy US
    • seniors
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 10%
  • Kind: comparator
    • Percent: 9%
  • Clinical Trial
    Itching US
    • seniors
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 8%
  • Kind: comparator
    • Percent: 8%
  • Clinical Trial
    Blurred vision US
    • seniors
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 8%
  • Kind: comparator
    • Percent: 8%
  • Clinical Trial
    Burning US
    • seniors
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 7%
  • Kind: comparator
    • Percent: 8%
  • Clinical Trial
    Conjunctival hyperemia US
    • seniors
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 8%
  • Kind: comparator
    • Percent: 3%
  • Clinical Trial
    Increased pigmentation of the iris US
    • seniors
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 7%
  • Kind: comparator
    • Percent: 0%
  • Clinical Trial
    Excessive tearing US
    • seniors
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 4%
  • Kind: comparator
    • Percent: 6%
  • Clinical Trial
    Lid discomfort/pain US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 1-4
  • Clinical Trial
    Lid crusting US
    • seniors
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 3%
  • Kind: comparator
    • Percent: 3%
  • Clinical Trial
    Dry Eye US
    • seniors
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 3%
  • Kind: comparator
    • Percent: 3%
  • Clinical Trial
    Lid erythema US
    • seniors
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 3%
  • Kind: comparator
    • Percent: 2%
  • Clinical Trial
    Upper respiratory infection/cold/flu US
    • seniors
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 3%
  • Kind: comparator
    • Percent: 3%
  • Clinical Trial
    Lid edema US
    • seniors
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 1%
  • Kind: comparator
    • Percent: 3%
  • Clinical Trial
    Musculoskeletal Pain US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 1-2
  • Clinical Trial
    Angina Pectoris US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 1-2
  • Clinical Trial
    Chest Pain US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 1-2
  • Clinical Trial
    Photophobia US
    • seniors
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 2%
  • Kind: comparator
    • Percent: 1%
  • Clinical Trial
    Eye discharge US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: <1
  • Clinical Trial
    Diplopia US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: <1
  • Clinical Trial
    Conjunctivitis US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: <1
  • Clinical Trial
    Rash/allergic skin reaction US
    • seniors
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 1%
  • Kind: comparator
    • Percent: 0.3%
  • Clinical Trial
    Retinal Detachment US
    Retinal artery embolism US
    Vitreous haemorrhage US
    Ocular vellus hair growth US
    Post Marketing
    Bacterial Keratitis US
    Cystoid Macular Edema US
    Post Marketing
    Eyelash changes US
    Clinical Trial Post Marketing
    Iris pigmentation changes US
    Clinical Trial Post Marketing
    Macular Edema US
    Post Marketing
    Intraocular Inflammation US
    Post Marketing
    Eyelid skin darkening US
    Post Marketing
    Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis US
    Clinical Trial
    Headache US
    Clinical Trial
    Dizziness US
    Clinical Trial
    Corneal Edema US
    Clinical Trial
    Corneal Erosions US
    Clinical Trial
    Misdirected eyelashes US
    Clinical Trial
    Intraocular Inflammation US
    Clinical Trial
    Macular Edema US
    Clinical Trial
    Dyspnea US
    Clinical Trial
    Eyelid skin darkening US
    Clinical Trial
    Deepening of the eyelid sulcus US
    Clinical Trial
    Asthma and exacerbation of asthma US
    Clinical Trial
    Herpes keratitis US
    Clinical Trial

    Contraindications

    • Route:
      • Ophthalmic
    • Hypersensitivity:
      • true
      • Benzalkonium chloride
    • Regions: US
    • Route:
      • Ophthalmic
    • Hypersensitivity:
      • true
    • Regions: US

    Food Interactions

    Information currently not available.