Description

Simple

A medication used to treat inflammation, immune reactions, hormone conditions, and abnormal cell growth.

Clinical

A corticosteroid used to treat inflammation or immune-mediated reactions and to treat endocrine or neoplastic diseases.

Overview

A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from [cortisone].[1] It is biologically inert and converted to [prednisolone] in the liver.[9]

Prednisone was granted FDA approval on 21 February 1955.[8]

Pharmacology

Indication

Prednisone is indicated as an anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive drug for allergic, dermatologic, gastrointestinal, hematologic, ophthalmologic, nervous system, renal, respiratory, rheumatologic, infectious, endocrine, or neoplastic conditions as well as in organ transplant.[ Read more

Pharmacodynamic

Corticosteroids bind to the glucocorticoid receptor, inhibiting pro-inflammatory signals, and promoting anti-inflammatory signals.[1] Prednisone has a short duration of action as the... Read more

Mechanism of action

Prednisone is first metabolized in the liver to its active form, prednisolone, a glucocorticoid agonist corticosteroid.[9]

The short term effects of corticostero... Read more

Absorption

Oral prednisone has a Tmax of 2 hours, while the delayed-release formulation has a Tmax of 6-6.5 hours.[9] A 5mg dose of prednisone has an AUC... Read more

Protein binding

Corticosteroids are generally bound to corticosteroid binding globulin[ Read more

Volume of distribution

Data regarding the volume of distribution for prednisone is not readily available.[9] However, a 0.15mg/kg dose of prednisolone has a volume of distribution of 29.3... Read more

Clearance

Data regarding the clearance of prednisone is not readily available.[9]A 5.5µg/h/kg infusion of prednisolone has an average clearance of 0.066±0.12L/h/kg, while a 0... Read more

Half life

Prednisone and its active metabolite [prednisolone] have half lives of 2-3 hours from both immediate and delayed release preparations.[9]

Route of elimination

Prednisone is excreted mainly in the urine as sulfate and glucuronide conjugates.[9]

Toxicity

Data regarding acute overdoses of prednisone are rare but prolonged high doses of prednisone can lead to a higher incidence and severity of adverse effects such as mental symptoms, moon face, abnormal fat deposits, fluid retention, excessive appetite, weight gain, hypertrichosis, acne, striae, ecchy... Read more

Adverse Effects

Effect Regions Age Groups Incidences Evidence Type
Growth suppression US
  • children
Post Marketing
Myocardial rupture US
Post Marketing
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy US
  • premature infants
Post Marketing
Suppression of skin test reactions US
Changes in Spermatozoa Number US
Post Marketing
Decreased spermatozoa motility US
Post Marketing
Posterior subcapsular cataracts US
Post Marketing
Increased intraocular pressure US
Post Marketing
Glaucoma US
Post Marketing
Exophthalmos US
Post Marketing
Vertigo US
Post Marketing
Sensory disturbances US
Post Marketing
Personality changes US
Post Marketing
Paresthesia US
Post Marketing
Paraplegia US
Post Marketing
Paraparesis US
Post Marketing
Neuropathy US
Post Marketing
Neuritis US
Post Marketing
Mood Swings US
Post Marketing
Meningitis US
Post Marketing
Insomnia US
Post Marketing
Pseudo-tumor cerebri US
Post Marketing
Papilledema US
Post Marketing
Increased Intracranial Pressure US
Post Marketing
Headache US
Post Marketing
Euphoria US
Post Marketing
Emotional Instability US
Post Marketing
Depression US
Post Marketing
Convulsions US
Post Marketing
Arachnoiditis US
Post Marketing
Vertebral Compression Fractures US
Post Marketing
Tendon Rupture US
Post Marketing
Steroid myopathy US
Post Marketing
Pathologic fracture of long bones US
Post Marketing
Osteoporosis US
Post Marketing
Muscle Weakness US
Post Marketing
Loss of muscle mass US
Post Marketing
Charcot-like arthropathy US
Post Marketing
Aseptic necrosis of humeral heads US
Post Marketing
Aseptic necrosis of femoral heads US
Post Marketing
Negative nitrogen balance due to protein catabolism US
Post Marketing
Ulcerative esophagitis US
Post Marketing
GI hemorrhage US
Post Marketing
GI perforation US
Post Marketing
Peptic Ulcer US
Post Marketing
Pancreatitis US
Post Marketing
Nausea US
Post Marketing
Malaise US
Post Marketing
Hiccups US
Post Marketing
Hepatomegaly US
Post Marketing

Contraindications

  • Hypersensitivity:
    • true
  • Regions: US
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Systemic fungal infection
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0100019
      • Modification Of:
        • Location: Systemic
        • Base:
          • Name: Fungal Infection
          • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0031276

Food Interactions

Avoid alcohol.

Take with food. Food reduces irritation.