Description

Simple

A medication used to treat certain urinary infections.

Clinical

A synthetic urea derivative used to treat urea splitting bacterial infections of the urinary tract.

Overview

Acetohydroxamic Acid, a synthetic drug derived from hydroxylamine and ethyl acetate, is similar in structure to urea. In the urine, it acts as an antagonist of the bacterial enzyme urease. Acetohydroxamic Acid has no direct antimicrobial action and does not acidify urine directly. It is used, in addition to antibiotics or medical procedures, to treat chronic urea-splitting urinary infections.

Pharmacology

Indication

Used, in addition to antibiotics or medical procedures, to treat chronic urea-splitting urinary infections.

Pharmacodynamic

Acetohydroxamic Acid, a synthetic drug derived from hydroxylamine and ethyl acetate, is similar in structure to urea. In the urine, it acts as an antagonist of the bacterial enzyme urease. Acetohydroxamic Acid has no direct antimicrobial action and does not acidify urine directly.

Mechanism of action

Acetohydroxamic Acid reversibly inhibits the bacterial enzyme urease. This inhibits the hydrolysis of urea and production of ammonia in urine infected with urea-splitting organisms, leading to a decrease in pH and ammonia levels. As antimicrobial agents are more effective in such conditions, the eff... Read more

Absorption

Well absorbed from the GI tract following oral administration.

Protein binding

No known binding

Volume of distribution

Information currently not available.

Clearance

Information currently not available.

Half life

5-10 hours in patients with normal renal function

Route of elimination

Information currently not available.

Toxicity

Oral, rat: LD50 = 4.8gm/kg. Symptoms of overdose include anorexia, malaise, lethargy, diminished sense of wellbeing, tremor, anxiety, nausea, and vomiting.

Adverse Effects

Effect Regions Age Groups Incidences Evidence Type
Headache US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 30%
  • Varying Reports
    Gastrointestinal Symptoms US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 20-25%
  • Varying Reports
    Malaise US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 20-25%
  • Varying Reports
    Vomiting US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 20-25%
  • Varying Reports
    Nausea US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 20-25%
  • Varying Reports
    Anorexia US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 20-25%
  • Varying Reports
    Nervousness US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 20%
  • Varying Reports
    Depression US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 20%
  • Varying Reports
    Tremulousness US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 20%
  • Varying Reports
    Anxiety US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 20%
  • Varying Reports
    Hemolytic Anemia US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 15%
  • Varying Reports
    Reticulocytosis US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 6%
  • Varying Reports
    Phlebitis US
    Varying Reports
    Deep Vein Thrombosis US
    Varying Reports
    Pulmonary emboli US
    Varying Reports
    Palpitations US
    Varying Reports
    Macular skin rash US
    Varying Reports
    Alopecia US
    Varying Reports
    Fatigue US
    Varying Reports

    Contraindications

    • Route:
      • Oral
    • Regions: US
    • Patient Conditions:
        • Name: Poor renal function
        • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0108987
    • Route:
      • Oral
    • Regions: US
    • Patient Conditions:
        • Name: Pregnancy
        • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0018394
    • Sex Group: female
    • Regions: US
    • Patient Conditions:
        • Name: Not satisfied by contraception method
        • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0107825
    • Route:
      • Oral
    • Hypersensitivity:
      • false
    • Regions: US
    • Route:
      • Oral
    • Regions: US
    • Patient Conditions:
        • Name: Antimicrobial agents
        • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0108984
        • Name: Imminent surgery
        • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0108983
    • Route:
      • Oral
    • Regions: US
    • Patient Conditions:
        • Name: Infected urine by non-urease producing organisms
        • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0108985
    • Route:
      • Oral
    • Regions: US
    • Patient Conditions:
        • Name: Culture-specific oral antimicrobial-controlled urinary infection
        • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0108986

    Food Interactions

    Avoid alcohol. Concomitant use of acetohydroxamic acid with alcohol may cause a rash.

    Avoid iron supplements. Acetohydroxamic acid chelates iron, therefore oral supplementation of iron will reduce levels of both iron and acetohydroxamic acid.

    Take on an empty stomach.