Description

Simple

A medication used to treat a dry cough.

Clinical

An NMDA receptor antagonist used to treat cases of dry cough.

Overview

Dextromethorphan is a levorphanol derivative and codeine analog commonly used as a cough suppressant and also a drug of abuse.[11] Although similar in structure to other opioids, it has minimal interaction with opioid receptors.[11]

Dextromethorphan was granted FDA approval before 3 December 1957.[11,16]

Pharmacology

Indication

Dextromethorphan is indicated in combination with [brompheniramine] and [pseudoephedrine] in the treatment of coughs and upper respiratory symptoms associated with allergies or the common cold.[ Read more

Pharmacodynamic

Dextromethorphan is an opioid-like molecule indicated in combination with other medication in the treatment of coughs and pseudobulbar affect.[13, Read more

Mechanism of action

Dextromethorphan is an agonist of NMDA and sigma-1 receptors.[12] It is also an antagonist of α3/β4 nicotinic receptors.[A10589] Howeve... Read more

Absorption

A 30mg oral dose of dextromethorphan reaches a Cmax of 2.9 ng/mL, with a Tmax of 2.86 h, and an AUC of 17.8 ng\*h/mL.[ Read more

Protein binding

Dextromethorphan is 60-70% protein bound in serum.[12]

Volume of distribution

The volume of distribution of dextromethorphan is 5-6.7L/kg.[8]

Clearance

Information currently not available.

Half life

Dextromethorphan has a half life of 3-30 hours.[8]

Route of elimination

Information currently not available.

Toxicity

A dextromethorphan overdose may present as nausea, vomiting, stupor, coma, respiratory depression, seizures, tachycardia, hyperexcitability, toxic psychosis, ataxia, nystagmus, dystonia, blurred vision, changes in muscle reflexes, and serotonin syndrome.[ Read more

Adverse Effects

Effect Regions Age Groups Incidences Evidence Type
Diarrhea US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 13
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 6
  • Clinical Trial
    Dizziness US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 10
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 5
  • Clinical Trial
    Vomiting US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 5
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 1
  • Clinical Trial
    Peripheral Edema US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 5
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 1
  • Clinical Trial
    Asthenia US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 5
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 2
  • Clinical Trial
    Cough US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 5
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 2
  • Clinical Trial
    Urinary Tract Infection US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 4
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 1
  • Clinical Trial
    Influenza US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 4
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 1
  • Clinical Trial
    Increased GGT US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 3
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 0
  • Clinical Trial
    Flatulence US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 3
  • Kind: placebo
    • Percent: 1
  • Clinical Trial
    Muscle Spasticity US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 3
  • Clinical Trial
    Asthenia US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 2
  • Clinical Trial
    Abdominal Pain US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 2
  • Clinical Trial
    Dizziness US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 2
  • Clinical Trial
    Muscle Spasms US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 2
  • Clinical Trial
    Respiratory Failure US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 1
  • Clinical Trial
    Fall US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 1
  • Clinical Trial
    Photosensitivity US
    Varying Reports
    Dry throat US
    Varying Reports
    Headache US
    Varying Reports
    Convulsions US
    Varying Reports
    Hypertension US
    Varying Reports
    Euphoria US
    Varying Reports
    Hypotension US
    Varying Reports
    Tremor US
    Varying Reports
    Irritability US
    Varying Reports
    Urticaria US
    Varying Reports
    Diarrhea US
    Varying Reports
    Sedation US
    Varying Reports
    Epigastric discomfort US
    Varying Reports
    Dizziness US
    Varying Reports
    Tightness of chest and wheezing US
    Varying Reports
    Cardiac Arrhythmias US
    Varying Reports
    Thickening of bronchial secretions US
    Varying Reports
    Vomiting US
    Varying Reports
    Visual disturbances US
    Varying Reports
    Nausea US
    Varying Reports
    Dysphoria US
    Varying Reports
    Anorexia US
    Varying Reports
    Hemolytic Anemia US
    Varying Reports
    Agranulocytosis US
    Varying Reports
    Thrombocytopenia US
    Varying Reports
    Insomnia US
    Varying Reports
    Constipation US
    Varying Reports
    Dry Mouth US
    Varying Reports
    Pruritus US
    Varying Reports
    Difficult urination US
    Varying Reports
    Disturbed coordination US
    Varying Reports
    Urinary Frequency US
    Varying Reports
    Palpitation US
    Varying Reports

    Contraindications

    • Hypersensitivity:
      • true
    • Regions: US

    Food Interactions

    Take with or without food. The absorption is unaffected by food.