Description

Simple

A medication used to treat serious cases of low blood pressure, often during surgery when anesthesia is used and leads to low blood pressure.

Clinical

An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used in the management of hypotension, generally in the surgical setting associated with the use of anesthetics.

Overview

Phenylephrine is an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor agonist used to treat hypotension,[6,8] dilate the pupil,[7] and induce local vasoconstriction.[1] The action of phenylephrine, or neo-synephrine, was first described in literature in the 1930s.[2]

Phenylephrine was granted FDA approval in 1939.[7]

Pharmacology

Indication

Phenylephrine injections are indicated to treat hypotension caused by shock or anesthesia,[6, Read more

Pharmacodynamic

Phenylephrine is an alpha-1 adrenergic agonist that raises blood pressure,[6, Read more

Mechanism of action

Phenylephrine is an alpha-1 adrenergic agonist that mediates vasoconstriction[1] and mydriasis[ Read more

Absorption

Phenylephrine is 38% orally bioavailable.[3] Clinically significant systemic absorption of ophth... Read more

Protein binding

Data regarding the protein binding of phenylephrine in serum is not readily available.[6, Read more

Volume of distribution

The volume of distribution of phenylephrine is 340L.[6, Read more

Clearance

Phenylephrine has an average clearance of 2100mL/min.[6, Read more

Half life

Intravenous phenylephrine has an effective half life of 5 minutes and an elimination half life of 2.5 hours.[ Read more

Route of elimination

86% of a dose of phenylephrine is recovered in the urine[3] with 16% as the unmetabolized drug,... Read more

Toxicity

Patients experiencing and overdose may present with headache, hypertension, reflex bradycardia, tingling limbs, cardiac arrhythmias, and a feeling of fullness in the head.[ Read more

Adverse Effects

Effect Regions Age Groups Incidences Evidence Type
Bradycardia US
Varying Reports
Necrosis of the Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue US
Varying Reports
Skin Necrosis US
Varying Reports
Visceral arterial ischaemia US
Varying Reports
Peripheral ischaemia US
Varying Reports
Exacerbation of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) US
Varying Reports
Exacerbation of heart failure US
Varying Reports
Exacerbation of angina US
Varying Reports
Rebound Miosis US
Varying Reports
High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) US
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Arrhythmia US
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Dry Eyes US
Literature
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage US
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Tachycardia US
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Myocardial Infarction US
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Syncope US
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Marked hypertension US
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Conjunctival sensitization US
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Photophobia US
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Temporary blurred vision US
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Stinging sensation in eyes upon instillation US
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Eye Pain US
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Pruritus US
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Dyspnea US
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Hypertensive crisis US
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Tremors US
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Cervical Pain US
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Vision blurred US
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Headaches US
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Nausea US
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Vomiting US
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Epigastric Pain US
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Arrhythmias US
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Fall in cardiac output US
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Reflex Bradycardia US
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Contraindications

  • Route:
    • Intramuscular
    • Subcutaneous
  • Dose Form:
    • Injection
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Severe Hypertension
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0058109
      • Modification Of:
        • Base:
          • Name: Hypertension
          • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0020037
        • Severity:
          • Includes:
            • severe
  • Route:
    • Intramuscular
    • Subcutaneous
  • Dose Form:
    • Injection
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Ventricular Tachycardia
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0031960
  • Route:
    • Ophthalmic
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Thyrotoxicosis
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0021770
  • Route:
    • Ophthalmic
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Hypertension
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0020037
  • Route:
    • Ophthalmic
  • Hypersensitivity:
    • false
  • Regions: US
  • Route:
    • Ophthalmic
  • Regions: US
  • Age Groups:
    • pediatric
  • Below Age:
    • Amount: 1
    • Unit: year

Food Interactions

Information currently not available.