Description

Simple

A drug used to treat high blood pressure that is severe enough to cause symptoms and organ damage, and has not responded well to other medications.

Clinical

An antihypertensive vasodilating agent used for resistant hypertension that is symptomatic or has caused end organ damage.

Overview

A potent direct-acting peripheral vasodilator (vasodilator agents) that reduces peripheral resistance and produces a fall in blood pressure.

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of severe hypertension and in the topical treatment (regrowth) of androgenic alopecia in males and females and stabilisation of hair loss in patients with androgenic alopecia.

Pharmacodynamic

Minoxidil is an orally effective direct acting peripheral vasodilator that reduces elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure by decreasing peripheral vascular resistance. Minoxidil is also used topically to treat androgenetic alopecia. Microcirculatory blood flow in animals is enhanced or maint... Read more

Mechanism of action

Minoxidil is thought to promote the survival of human dermal papillary cells (DPCs) or hair cells by activating both extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt and by preventing cell death by increasing the ratio of BCl-2/Bax. Minoxidil may stimulate the growth of human hairs by... Read more

Absorption

Minoxidil is at least 90% absorbed from the GI tract in experimental animals and man.

Protein binding

Minoxidil does not bind to plasma proteins.

Volume of distribution

Information currently not available.

Clearance

Information currently not available.

Half life

4.2 hours

Route of elimination

Information currently not available.

Toxicity

Oral LD50 in rats has ranged from 1321-3492 mg/kg; in mice, 2456-2648 mg/kg. Side effects include cardiovascular effects associated with hypotension such as sudden weight gain, rapid heart beat, faintness or dizziness.

Adverse Effects

Effect Regions Age Groups Incidences Evidence Type
ECG Changes US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 60%
  • Varying Reports
    Edema US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: 7%
  • Clinical Trial
    Pericaridal tamponade US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: <1%
  • Varying Reports
    Pericarditis US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: <1%
  • Varying Reports
    Salt retention US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: <1%
  • Varying Reports
    Breast tenderness US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: <1%
  • Varying Reports
    Pericardial Effusion US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: <1%
  • Varying Reports
    Water retention US
  • Kind: experimental
    • Percent: <1%
  • Varying Reports
    Vomiting US
    Varying Reports
    Lowered hemoglobin US
    Varying Reports
    Leukopenia US
    Varying Reports
    Nausea US
    Varying Reports
    Elevated BUN US
    Varying Reports
    Elevated serum creatinine US
    Varying Reports
    Lowered erythrocyte count US
    Varying Reports
    Elevated alkaline phosphatase US
    Varying Reports
    Hypertrichosis US
    Varying Reports
    Rash US
    Varying Reports
    Stevens-Johnson Syndrome US
    Varying Reports
    Thrombocytopenia US
    Varying Reports
    Bullous eruption US
    Varying Reports
    Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis US
    Varying Reports

    Contraindications

    • Route:
      • Oral
    • Regions: US
    • Patient Conditions:
        • Name: Pheochromocytoma
        • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0002904

    Food Interactions

    Take with or without food. The absorption is unaffected by food.