Description

Simple

A medication found in many nutritional supplements and multivitamins that is used to treat conditions related to low vitamin D levels.

Clinical

A form of Vitamin D used in the treatment of specific medical conditions such as refractory rickets, hypoparathyroidism, and familial hypophosphatemia, as well as osteoporosis and chronic kidney disease.

Overview

Vitamin D, in general, is a secosteroid generated in the skin when 7-dehydrocholesterol located there interacts with ultraviolet irradiation - like that commonly found in sunlight [9]. Both the endogenous form of vitamin D (that results from 7-dehydrocholesterol transformation), vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), and the plant-derived form, vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol), are considered the main forms of vitamin d and are found in various types of food for daily intake [9]. Structurally, ergocalciferol differs from cholecalciferol in that it possesses a double bond between C22 and C23 and has an additional methyl group at C24 [9]. Finally, ergocalciferol is pharmacologically less potent than cholecalciferol, which makes vitamin D3 the preferred agent for medical use [Read more

Pharmacology

Indication

Cholecalciferol use is indicated for the treatment of specific medical conditions like refractory rickets (or vitamin D resistant rickets), hypoparathyroidism, and familial hypophosphatemia [12 Read more

Pharmacodynamic

The in vivo synthesis of the predominant two biologically active metabolites of vitamin D occurs in two steps. The first hydroxylation of vitamin D3 cholecalciferol (or D2) occurs in the liver to yield 25-hydroxyvitamin D while the second hydroxylation happens in the kidneys to give 1, 25-dihydroxyv... Read more

Mechanism of action

Most individuals naturally generate adequate amounts of vitamin D through ordinary dietary intake of vitamin D (in some foods like eggs, fish, and cheese) and natural photochemical conversion of the vitamin D3 precursor 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin via exposure to sunlight [ Read more

Absorption

Cholecalciferol is readily absorbed from the small intestine if fat absorption is normal [12, Read more

Protein binding

The protein binding documented for cholecalciferol is 50 to 80% [8]. Specifically, i... Read more

Volume of distribution

Studies have determined that the mean central volume of distribution of administered cholecalciferol supplementation in a group of 49 kidney transplant patients was approximately 237 L [ Read more

Clearance

Studies have determined that the mean clearance value of administered cholecalciferol supplementation in a group of 49 kidney transplant patients was approximately 2.5 L/day [ Read more

Half life

At this time, there have been resources that document the half-life of cholecalciferol as being about 50 days [ Read more

Route of elimination

It has been observed that administered cholecalciferol and its metabolites are excreted primarily in the bile and feces [ Read more

Toxicity

Chronic or acute administration of excessive doses of cholecalciferol may lead to hypervitaminosis D, manifested by hypercalcemia and its sequelae [12, Read more

Adverse Effects

Effect Regions Age Groups Incidences Evidence Type
Loss of Weight US
Unclassified
Anemia US
Unclassified
Mild acidosis US
Unclassified
Constipation US
Unclassified
Anorexia US
Unclassified
Nausea US
Unclassified
Weakness US
Unclassified
Stiffness US
Unclassified
Vague aches US
Unclassified
Dwarfism US
Unclassified
Bone demineralization in adults US
Unclassified
Widespread calcification of the soft tissues US
Unclassified
Mental Retardation US
Unclassified
Irreversible renal insufficiency US
Unclassified
Generalized vascular calcification US
Unclassified
Nephrocalcinosis US
Unclassified
Hypertension(HTN) US
Unclassified
Reversible azotemia US
Unclassified
Hypercalciuria US
Unclassified
Polydipsia US
Unclassified
Nocturia US
Unclassified
Polyuria US
Unclassified
Renal Function Impairment US
Unclassified

Contraindications

  • Hypersensitivity:
    • Vitamin D or any of its analogues and derivatives.
  • Sex Group: all
  • Regions: US
  • Sex Group: all
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Hypervitaminosis D
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0015762
  • Sex Group: all
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Abnormal sensitivity to the toxic effects of vitamin D
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0107478
  • Sex Group: all
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Malabsorption Syndrome
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0038388
  • Sex Group: all
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Hypercalcemia
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0003950

Food Interactions

Information currently not available.